The security situation in the Northeast States has improved substantially since 2014, says the Annual Report 2020-21 of the Ministry of Home Affairs published in April 2022.
The year 2020 recorded the lowest insurgency incidents and casualties among the civilians and security forces during the last two decades. Compared to 2014, there has been an 80% reduction in insurgency incidents in 2020. Similarly, in this period, Security Forces (SFs) casualties have come down by 75% and civilian deaths by 99%, the report said.
According to the MHA Annual Report, the year 2020 saw a decline of about 27%in insurgency incidents (2019 – 223, 2020 – 162) and 72% in casualties of civilian and SFs personnel (2019 – 25, 2020 – 07) compared to 2019. Counter Insurgency Operations led to neutralization of 21 insurgents, arrest of 646 insurgents and recovery of 305 weapons in 2020 in the region. A total of 2,644 cadres of insurgent outfits of NE States surrendered their arms in 2020 and joined the mainstream society.
The profile of violence in NER as a whole since 2014 is given below:
While the States of Mizoram, Sikkim and Tripura remained by and large peaceful, there is a marked improvement in the security situation in other States of the region. In 2020, insurgency-related violence declined by 42% in Arunachal Pradesh, 12% in Assam, 23% in Manipur and 45% in Nagaland compared to 2019. The States of Sikkim and Mizoram are free from insurgency, the Report said.
In Assam, the Report says, United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) (pro talks) and Karbi Longri NC Hills Liberation Front (KLNLF) are under SoO agreement with GoI and/or Government of Assam. However, ULFA (Independent) is active in parts of Assam.
UPDS (United People’s Democratic Solidarity) signed MoS on 25.11.2011 and subsequently dissolved itself. DHD (Dima Halam Daogah) signed MoS on 08.10.2012 and subsequently dissolved itself.
In a surrender ceremony held on 23.01.2020 at Guwahati, 644 cadres of various outfits (viz. ULFA/I-50, National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) – 8, Kamtapur Liberation Organization (KLO) – 6, Rava National Liberation Front – 13, Communist Party of India/Maoist – 1, National Santhal Liberation Army – 87, Adivasi Dragon Fighter – 178 and National Liberation Front of Bengali – 301) surrendered their arms. A total of 177 arms, 52 grenades, 71 bombs, 3 rocket launchers, 306 detonators, 1.93 kg explosive and 1,686 rounds of ammunition were deposited by them.
In a major development towards ending over 50 years of Bodo crisis, a Memorandum of Settlement (MoS) was signed on January 27, 2020 between GoI, Government of Assam and representatives of Bodo Groups including National Democratic Front of Bodoland/ Progressive (NDFB/P), NDFB/Ranjan Diamary, NDFB/Saoraigwra, United Bodo Peoples’ Organization (UBPO) and All Bodo Students’ Union (ABSU) at New Delhi. Following the settlement, 1,615 cadres of NDFB groups surrendered their arms on January 30, 2020. The NDFB groups disbanded themselves on March 9 and 10, 2020.
In 2020, insurgency-related incidents declined by 12% in Assam, as compared to 2019 [2019 – 17, 2020 – 15]. There have been no SFs deaths in the violent incidents in the State, in 2020. Counter Insurgency Operations led to neutralization of 05 insurgents, arrest of 79 insurgents and recovery of 73 weapons in the State in 2020. ULFA/I outfits accounted for about 47% of the insurgency incidents in the State and was involved in 07 violent incidents during 2020.
The State of Tripura has remained peaceful. The activities of main UG outfits viz. National Liberation Front of Twipra/ Biswamohan (NLFT/B) and All Tripura Tiger Force (ATTF) have been contained, the Report said.
A MoS between GoI, Government of Tripura and National Liberation Front of Twipra led by Sh. Sabir Kumar Debbarma (NLFT/SD) was signed on August 10, 2019. As per MoS, NLFT (SD) has agreed to abjure the path of violence, join the mainstream and abide by the Constitution of India. As a result, 88 cadres surrendered with 44 arms in a surrender ceremony held on August 13, 2019.
In order to arrive at a permanent solution to the long standing issue of rehabilitating the Bru families, a new agreement was signed between GoI, Government of Mizoram, Government of Tripura and representatives of Bru migrants on January 16, 2020 in New Delhi. As per this Agreement, Bru migrants will be settled in Tripura and would be given financial assistance/aid by GoI for their resettlement in Tripura and all round development, through a package of around Rupees 661.00 crore. Also, each resettled family would be given 30×40 sq. ft. piece of land for construction of house in Tripura in addition to the assistance of a fixed deposit of Rupees 4 lakhs, Rupees 5,000/- cash assistance per month for two years, free ration for two years and Rupees 1.5 lakh for housing assistance to each family.
In Meghalaya the major insurgent outfits presently active in the State are Garo National Liberation Army (GNLA) and Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council (HNLC). MoS between GoI, the State Government of Meghalaya and the Achik National Volunteer Council (ANVC) and ANVC/B, was signed on September 24, 2014. The ANVC and ANVC/B have dissolved on December 15, 2014.
In 2020, there have been 05 insurgencyrelated incidents in the State and no casualties of civilian and SFs personnel in violent incidents reported in the State. There has been no kidnapping/abduction case in 2020 in the State, the Report added.
According to the Report, in Nagaland the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) split in 1988 into groups – NSCN-(IM) led by Isak C Swu and Th. Muivah and NSCN(K) led by S.S Khaplang, a Naga from Myanmar. GoI signed a formal ceasefire agreement with Isak-Muivah group of NSCN in 1997 and it was extended indefinitely since 2007. GoI and NSCN (IM) signed a Framework Agreement on 03.08.2015. Presently, various factions of NSCN viz. NSCN (NK), NSCN(R) and NSCN (K-Khango) are under ceasefire with GoI. Currently, only one faction of NSCN/K–Yung Aung faction, largely based in Myanmar, remains active.
In 2020, the State of Nagaland witnessed a 45% decline in the number of violent incidents compared to 2019 (2019 – 42, 2020 – 23). There have been no civilian and SFs deaths in violent incidents in the State in 2020. Counter Insurgency arrest of 222 insurgents and recovery of 84 weapons in the State in 2020. NSCN/IM accounted for about 44% of the insurgency incidents in the State during 2020. In 2020, the number of kidnapping/abduction cases declined by 33% compared to 2019 (2019 – 49, 2020 – 33).
In case of Arunachal Pradesh, the MHA Report says that the State of Arunachal Pradesh does not have any active indigenous insurgent group. The State is affected by spill-over insurgency of factions of NSCN and ULFA (Independent) in Tirap, Changlang and Longding districts.
In 2020, the insurgency related incidents declined by 42% in Arunachal Pradesh compared to 2019 (2019 – 36, 2020 – 21). There has been no civilian death in the violent incidents in the State in 2020. Counter Insurgency Operations by SFs resulted in killing of 07 cadres/insurgents, arrest of 72 insurgents and recovery of 37 weapons in 2020. During 2020, Naga insurgent groups were involved in perpetrating violent incidents in the State [NSCN/IM – 11, NSCN/K-YK – 5, NSCN/U – 2 and ENNG – 1]. There have been 21 cases of kidnapping in the State in 2020.
According to the MHA Report 2020-21, the State of Manipur is affected by activities of Meitei, Naga, Kuki, Zomi, Hmar insurgent groups. A total of 23 UG outfits under two conglomerates, (United Peoples’ Front [UPF] – 8 and Kuki National Organization [KNO] – 15) are currently under SoO with GoI since August 22, 2008.
In 2020, there has been a decrease in insurgency related incidents by 23% compared to 2019 (2019 – 126, 2020 – 97). There has been no civilian death in the State in 2020. Counter Insurgency Operations by SFs resulted in killing of 07 cadres/insurgents, arrest of 259 insurgents and recovery of 92 weapons in the State in 2020. Meitei insurgency accounted for about 44% of insurgency incidents in the State, the Report said.
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